All other products noted in the table belong to the Carbopol polymer product family. The Carbomers Monograph in the European Pharmacopeia stipulates that benzene is limited to 2 ppm. Additionally, it may be desirable to substitute a benzene polymerized carbomer with a non-benzene polymerized carbomer in a pharmaceutical formulation.
The following table shows recommended substitutes for the benzene grade Carbopol products based on viscosity criteria. The substitute products are polymerized in either ethyl acetate or a cosolvent mixture of ethyl acetate and cyclohexane. If a substitution is made in a pharmaceutical formulation, it is recommended that key performance properties be ascertained and regulatory considerations be taken into account.
Products within the Carbopol polymer family are chemically similar in that they are all high molecular weight, crosslinked polyacrylic acid polymers.
However, these gel forming polymers differ by their chemical crosslinking and can be grouped into the following categories. We have made numerous enhancements to the Carbopol polymer family over time to help address regulatory demands, increase product robustness, and improve product handling, including, when mixing or processing Carbopol, ease of polymer dispersion to cut down on processing time.
As part of these enhancements, our polyacrylic acid polymers are synthesized to meet the highest standards of safety. In addition to our traditional excipients, LLS Health has added newer innovations to the Carbopol family in recent years, such as:.
Ultrez 10 NF. Carbopol NF polymer. Carbopol P NF polymer.Carbomer is the trade name for polyacrylic acid PAAa group of synthetic high molecular weight polymers of acrylic acid used in cosmetics and personal care products as thickening agents. They are primarily added to gel-like formulations, such as facial moisturizerssunscreen, shampoo, anti-aging treatments, cleansers, and scrubs, to help control the viscosity, flow, and consistency of the product.
The Carbomer polymers have been used in cosmetics for over 50 years. An article from Cosmetics Info explains that the Carbomers are large molecules prepared from relatively small chemical compounds called monomes. The monomers used to make Carbomer polymers are acrylic acid and polyalkenyl polyethers. All of the Carbomer polymers are chemically similar, differing from each other in molecular weight and viscosity. Dry Carbomer polymers come in the form of white, fluffy powders.
You may notice a number associated with the Carbomer name on the ingredient label. This is the Carbomer code. Carbomer codes i. The Carbomer polymers can have varying pH levels that must be neutralized in order for them to function as thickening agents.
Formulations that contain Carbomer polymers will sometimes have these neutralizing agents listed. Other times, companies will purchase pre-neutralized Carbomer, which may or may not list the neutralizing agent.
There are claims that some of these neutralizing agents may carry contaminants that can be potentially carcinogenic. An ingredient that is similar to the Carbomers is sodium polyacrylate, a sodium salt of polyacrylic acid. This ingredient is also used as a thickening agent and texture enhancer is cosmetics and personal care products since it is a superabsorbent polymer with the ability to absorb as much as to times its mass in water.
To understand the functions of Carbomers, it is important to first understand how they work. When a Carbomer polymer is placed in a water solution at neutral pH, many of the side chains will lose their protons and acquire a negative charge.
Because of this reaction, Carbomers are able to absorb and retain water, and swell to many times their original volume. This is why Carbomers are considered to be texture enhancers and are used to add thickness to products, particularly gel-like formulations.
Additionally, Carbomers have the ability to distribute or suspend an insoluble solid in a liquid. Thus, Carbomers are used to keep emulsions from separating into their oil and liquid components, as well as to control the consistency of cosmetics and other personal care products.
By adding Carbomers to things like shampoos, conditioners, creams, and lotions, formulations will appear more rich, smooth, and creamy. Varying the amount of Carbomer used in a product allows the manufacturer to create anything from a stiff hair gel that will stay exactly where you put it, a lotion with body but which still flows easily, or a rich cream that holds it shape. According to skin care expert Paula Begoun, high amounts of carbomers in a gel may result in the product rolling or balling up of cosmetic products on skin, but this phenomenon depends on other formulary steps taken to minimize this effect.When Lubrizol's "traditional" polymers were originally proposed to the U.
These traditional polymers were all polymerized in benzene solvent. However, over time Lubrizol has expanded its product offering to include products polymerized in more toxicologically preferred solvents such as ethyl acetate or a cosolvent mixture of ethyl acetate and cyclohexane.
When the toxicologically preferred solvent products were first introduced, USP agreed that Lubrizol could utilize the same generic compendial name that was initially used for the benzene grade products.
Since the traditional and toxicologically preferred solvent polymers have the identical raw materials and nearly identical performance, only a product trade name change was needed, but not a compendial name change. In order to minimize this confusion, umbrella monographs have been developed to separate Carbomer products that are manufactured without the use of benzene as a polymerization solvent.
Accept Cookies. It is one of the umbrella monographs that separates the Carbomer products based on polymer structure and applies to homopolymer products that are not polymerized in benzene. Prior to January 1, the current practice of labeling products as CarbomerCarbomer P, Carbomer or Carbomer may be continued.
It is one of the umbrella monographs that separates the Carbomer products based on polymer structure and applies to copolymer products that are not polymerized in benzene. It is one of the umbrella monographs that separates the Carbomer products based on polymer structure and applies to interpolymer products that are not polymerized in benzene.
The monographs called Carbomer XXX are assigned to Lubrizol products manufactured with the use of benzene.Carbomer is a term used for a series of polymers primarily made from acrylic acid.
USP/NF Listing of Lubrizol Polymers
Carbomers are white, fluffy powders but are frequently used as gels in cosmetics and personal care products. Carbomers can be found in a wide variety of product types including skin, hair, nail, and makeup products, as well as dentifrices. Carbomers are thickening agents that help control the viscosity and flow of cosmetic products.
They also help distribute and suspend insoluble solids into liquid, and prevent the oil and liquid parts of a solution from separating. They have the ability to absorb and retain water, and can swell up to times their original volume when dispersed in water. Generally, this class of ingredients is used in gel-like formulations because it forms a colloidal, mucilage-like consistency when mixed in water. This ingredient is contained in a wide range of personal care products such as styling gel, facial moisturizer, sunscreen, shampoo, anti-aging treatment, eye cream, cleanser and scrubs.
This ingredient has been assessed as safe to use in cosmetic products. Home Menu.We love preservativespetroleum -derived ingredients, and ethoxylated emulsifiers. It's a very special place for certain users as there is no place like this on the internet forums. We do have information on the wiki such as preservatives, emulsifiers, and measuring. Don't forget to check out the rules. Discussions must be about making cosmetics from scratch yourself.
Everything is made of chemicals, and remember that all cosmetic ingredients have been tested for safety. No altering, mixing, or decanting commercial products. Only discuss commercial products in the context of duping. For safety reasons, discussion about using food, drugs or supplements for DIY cosmetics are not allowed, including for immediate use. We are not here to diagnose, tell you how to treat your skin condition, or provide guidance on other skin goals.
I chose Carbomer and related products because it is used in both these products and many other gels in the market. I know there is also AVC but I don't see it used quite as much.
The main advantage of carbomer over other thickeners like xanthan gum and cellulose derivatives is that it can form very viscous gels at very low concentrations and give a clean feel with no stickiness at all. For example, the recipe below with 0. I used because it is the cheapest, the other varieties are at least double the price.
I have seen used in various commercial aloe gels so I thought it might work with aloe x powder since I already had success gelling the aloe powder up with Sepigelwhich has similar ingredient limitations.
For this part I didn't heat and hold but boiled the water beforehand and let it cool down to room temperature. I added a light layer of carbomer powder, let it wet and stirred it in, as described here.
I did't use a hot water bath because that was too unwieldily. The carbomer will take hours to hydrate, stir occasionally during this period.
From what I read on Chemist Corner, if you don't disperse the carbomer properly, you can have what is called a fish-eye problem: lumps of unneutralised carbomer which is acidic and irritant in the final product. This is probably more of a problem when you scale up production, but just be careful anyway. Heat and hold B at 70C for 20 minutes.
Mix with A. Let cool to 40C, add in licorice extract, preservative and mix well. I added other ingredients before neutralising to ensure more even distribution. Add the TEA in a few stages. I've seen recommendations of Mix well and test the pH. Add more TEA if necessary, and have some citric acid solution handy.Medically reviewed by Drugs. Last updated on Apr 13, Carbomer is a high molecular weight polymer compound used commonly in the cosmetic industry.
These compounds can absorb large amounts of water, increasing in volume up to 1, times to form gels and thick solutions that are stable and resistant to spoilage. When not in solution, they carbomers exist as a white powder. Best known for its use in the cosmetic industry, it also has practical applications in medicine and hygiene. Different numbers of carbomers denote their different molecular size.
Carbomers are considered to be generally regarded as safe by the FDA, although high concentrations may lead to eye and skin irritation. Carbomers are commonly found in toothpaste and gels, shampoo, skin lotions, and some lubricant eye drops. Carbomer liquid eye gels. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own personal medication records.
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This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Skip to Content. Inactive Ingredients carbomer Print Share. Carbomer Excipient pharmacologically inactive substance Medically reviewed by Drugs.
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FDA Safety Alerts. Daily MedNews. Weekly Drug News Roundup.Poly acrylic acid PAA ; trade name Carbomer is a synthetic high- molecular weight polymer of acrylic acid. They may be homopolymers of acrylic acid, or crosslinked with an allyl ether of pentaerythritolallyl ether of sucroseor allyl ether of propylene. In a water solution at neutral pHPAA is an anionic polymeri.
This makes PAAs polyelectrolyteswith the ability to absorb and retain water and swell to many times their original volume. Dry PAAs are sold as white, fluffy powders that are frequently used as gels in cosmetic and personal care products. Their role in cosmetics is to suspend solid in liquids, prevent emulsions from separating and control the consistency in flow of cosmetics. Carbomer codes, and P are an indication of molecular weight and the specific components of the polymer. For many applications PAAs are used in form of alkali metal or ammonium salts, e.
In the dry powder form, the positively charged sodium ions are bound to the polyacrylate, however in aqueous solutions the sodium ions can dissociate. Instead of an organized polymer chain, this leads to a swollen gel that can absorb a high amount of water. Polyacrylic acid is a weak anionic polyelectrolyte, whose degree of ionisation is dependent on solution pH.
In its non-ionised form at low pHs, PAA may associate with various non-ionic polymers such as polyethylene oxide, poly-N-vinyl pyrrolidone, polyacrylamide, and some cellulose ethers and form hydrogen-bonded interpolymer complexes  In aqueous solutions PAA can also form polycomplexes with oppositely charged polymers for example, chitosansurfactants, and drug molecules for example, streptomycin. Polyacrylic acid and its derivatives are used in disposable diapers ion exchange resins, adhesives and detergents.
Detergents are often copolymers of acrylic acid that can be used in both zeolites and phosphates in washing powder formulations. They are also popular as thickeningdispersingsuspendingand emulsifying agents in pharmaceuticalscosmeticsand paints. Cross-linked polyacrylic acid has also been used in the processing of household products, including floor cleaners. Acrylic acid is also the main component of Superadsorbent Polymers SAPscross-linked polyacrylates that can absorb and retain more than times of their own weight in liquid.
PAA films can be deposited on orthopaedic implants to protect them from corrosion. Crosslinked hydrogels of AA and gelatin have also been used as medical glue, which has a high bonding strength. For the development of polymeric matrices which allows controlled delivery rate of active substances, the recent investigations aimed towards the clarification of the conformational changes of the polymeric gel during neutralization, light irradiation, and embedment of gold nanoparticles.
Free radical polymerization is still the most common industrial for production of polymers. For the free radical polymerization of acrylic acid, most commonly thermochemical initiators such as potassium persulfate and AIBN are used. The polymerization can take several hours to complete but can be accelerated by drastically increasing the temperature and pressure.
PAA is widely used in dispersants and since the molecular weight has a significant impact on the rheological properties and dispersion capacity, it is crucial to have control over the molecular weight distribution. RAFT polymerization was used to obtain PAA with a defined molecular weight, leading to improved dispersion properties.
Block copolymers of PAA have been prepared that are responsive to pH and temperature stimuli, demonstrating the possibility to be used for drug delivery purposes. One reported approach was with surface-initiated ATRP of tert-butyl acrylate that was subsequently deprotected through pyrolysis to form the carboxylic acid.
These PAA brushes can form chelate complex with silver and can therefore exhibit antibacterial activity. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the exotic molecules expanded by insertion of two-carbon units, see carbo-mer. CAS Number. Chemical formula. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics. The Macrogalleria. Polymer Science Learning Center.
What is a Carbomer?
Retrieved In Mark, James E. Polymer Data Handbook. Oxford University Press, Inc. American Journal of Infection Control.